How are safety standards determined?

In general, each jurisdiction (e.g. USA, EU, Canada, Australia) has a regulatory body designed to administer the regulation and compliance with standards related to electromagnetic radiation.

These bodies adopt the scientific approach by remaining sceptical, continuing with conducting, reviewing and challenging research, and erring on the side of caution. This means that the standards developed to ensure devices and products are safe for the public include safety factors, meaning that the upper limits of emissions from products must be substantially below the exposure deemed by research to be safe. 

Health Canada has an article that explains the review of scientific literature, including what "weight of evidence" is taken into account. 

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